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چکیده انگلیسی
چکیده انگلیسی تاریخ ثبت : 1390/11/18
طبقه بندي : فصلنامه حکومت اسلامی شماره22 ,
عنوان : چکیده انگلیسی
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Abstracts
Trans. by Ahmad Reza Jalili and Sayyed `Abbs Huseyni
Religious Government; Questions and Answers (part 2):An Account of
Ayatollah Abd Allah Jawadi Amuli's Lectures

First professor, Amuli mentions the doubts and the questions raised about
religious government and then offers reasonable answers to them. In response
to the claim that religious government causes religion to have worldly identity,
he states that Islam is a life-giving religion and contributes to the attainment
of the good in this world and the good in the hereafter. He also sees that
religiosity in its true sense does not only protect people from the danger of
being polytheistic, but also brings them felicity.
Part of the article discusses the question of religion's inefficiency to solve
novel problems and the relation between religious governments and true
religion.
In his discussion of "government and freedom," professor Amuli elaborates
on the meaning of freedom and goes through the surface and depth of the
subject. Finally, he deals with the question whether religion is considered
an undeniable truth or an obligation.

The Comprehensive Faith
Ali Riza Shujai-zand

In the present article the researcher divides religions into two types:
 

 


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 salvation-centred and creed-centred, in other words, one-dimentional and
two-dimentional. He, then, expounds on the view of Muslim and non-Muslim
thinkers who hold that Islam is the most complete and the most perfect
religion. According to martyr Muttahari's view, Islam is expected to produce
a kind of comprehensive constitution which can be above limitations of time
and place, and this demands adopting divine everlasting customes and
invariable law, and purity of man's nature.
The researcher holds that Islam is a religion that takles care of this life
as well as the hereafter.
He rejects the idea of separating religion from life and holds that religion
is concerned with both individual and society.
The view that Islam is for all humankind and is concerned with all aspects
of life entails that it attends to the social and political aspects. The writer's
.2 verses anicسQur .1 as such sources of number a on based is argument
Islamic traditions (ahadith), 3. the prophet's life-style and that of the pure
.5 ,.etc ,Jihad ,Hajj ,Zakat ,Khoms ,.e.i,Islam of )ًfur( branches the .4 ,Imams
Islamic jurisprudence, e.g., inheritance (irth), endowment (waqf), gift-giving
(hibah), and Islamic morals.
In the last part of the discussion, the researcher deals with the ideological
and moral significance of religion.

The Powers' Independence in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of
Iran
Dr. Muhammad Ali Sani`i Munfarid

Independence of "the powers" , one of the key concepts in the
constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, has a remarkably profound
effect on the efficiency of the political system and indicates the way of
distributing political authority in the government of the Islamic Republic
of Iran and the kind of attitude of the powers towards one another.
This article investigates the theory of independence of "the powers" within
the framework of the constitution, and after pointing to a number of
examples, it proposes an example which is compatible with the constitution of
 

 


|269|
 the Islamic Republic of Iran and puts it for evaluation.
The writer maintains that the appropriate model of independence of "the
powers" in the Islamic Republic is that in which the  three powers are on  equal
terms with one another, each one is relatively independent of one another
and all co-operate and act under the leader's authority. Consequently, the
leader has authority over the three powers.
Hence, authority is practically divided among the powers, and in practice
the leader enjoys no centralization of power which can bring about negative
results.
However, this power does exist and it can' in due course, come out and
manifest itself.

Counselling People's Right and Government's Duty
Sayyed Jawad Warai

The present article is an excerpt from a detailed research into the mutual
duties of government and citizens.In addition to the review of the different
aspects of counselling, some other issues have been discussed, e.g., the
precept of counselling, the philosophy of counselling, the range of
counselling, the Muslim ruler and the opinion of most counsellers.
The researcher considers the political and social affairs entrusted to
Muslim ruler to be within the limit of counselling. He also expounds on the
question of "Muslim ruler and counsellors' dominant opinion", and deals with
it in the light of the Quranic verses, prophent's conduct (sunnah) the conduct
of the infallible, and the sages, practice.
In the section relating the infallible, the writer points to the different
instances of the prophet's conduct (sunnah) and then reviews the life-style
of Imam Ali, Imam Hassan and Imam Husayn. He also coniders the life-style of
the two Sheikhs (Abu Bakr and Umar) to illustrate the ideas adopted by
Muslims in the early years of the spread of Islam.
The article concludes with the idea that it is necessary for rulers includig
the infallible to make use of counselling due to its special sigificance,
even though Muslim ruler's right to make decisions is preserved.
 

 


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The Methods of Political Education of Officials in Imam Ali's View
Muhammad Sadiq Mazinani

The researcher considers this subject to be one of the arguments related
to  existence and  extinction  of government, one of the topics in the political
philosophy in Islam. The scientific analysis made by the writer to identify
the fundamental principles of the subject reveals that the goal of Islamic
government is execution of shariah (Islamic law) and shows that there is a
very close relationship between the definition of Islamic politics and the
definition of religion as a set of beliefs' moral values and prectical
percepts.
The writer observes that there is a distinction between the Islamic
education of government officialsreform of others_and official's
behavior self-reform.
The following are the most important methods which Imam Ali (upon him
be peace) used in the political education of the officials:
1. considering intellectual development by making use of reflection and
rationality, inviting to learning, keeping company with the learned, taking
counsel with others and learning from others' experiences.
2. introducing a really practical example
3. encouragement and punishment
4. supervision
5. pointing out the stumbles
6. benefiting from history
7. counsel and advice

Imam Ali and Government Officials
Jahanbakhsh Thawaqib

To Imam Ali (upon him be peace) government should have three
important characteristics, i.e., religiosity , justice and tact. Decent and
righteous officials' role is very significant for the attainment of these
characteristics. That is why Imam Ali (upon him be peace) stresses the
importance of the role of government officials. The writer, after a close
study of Imam's speeches, gives a detailed account of Imam's reform plan
 

 


|267|
 relating government officials focusing on such issues like selection
criterion, Imam's advice and guide lines on administration, and his
supervision policy.

Political Vocabulary in the Holy Qur'an: "Arbab" (Lords); Its Role in
the Knowledge and Philosophy of Politics
Mustafa Jafar pishe-fard

The reseacher first considers the necessity of reflecting on the political
concepts in the holy Qur'an these days. In his introduction to the question
concerned, he discusses thoroughly the literal and inner meaning of the word
arbab (lords). Then, after investigating the different uses of "lords" in the
holy Quran, it becomes distinct that the message of all Qur'anic verses is
to dissociate the word arbab from false gods and those who pretend to be
mighty, and to associate it to monotheism.
The writer explains the Qur'anic conception of "taking lord" as a kind of
abnormal and unreasonable attitude, considering it to be in contast to the
idea of Divine Lordship. Then he goes over to expound on the ontological
and normative senses of lordship.
At the end of the discussion, the writer deals with the conception of
"taking lords" pointing out that most Shi'ite and Sunni interpreters agree
that it is used to refer to any sort of submission to false gods or to any
kind of obedience gained from others through force.
The final part of the essay elaborates on the effect which the role of
"lords" has on the other areas of political issues such as political legitimacy,
freedom and social justice.

Further Investigation into Imamate, Government and Distribution of
Powers in the Constitution (comments and observations).
Hussayn Jawan Arase

In this article, which criticizes the interview on "the responsibility of
executing the constitution" published in Volume 20 and 21 of this quarterly,
 

 


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 i.e' Islamic Government, the writer presents his remarks in two parts: the first
is a critique of fundamentals, and the second is an ad hoc critique. In the first
part he focuses on such issues like community and imamate, ruler and
government, jurist and guardian and distribution of powers. He thinks that
the word "ummah" (community) has a wider sense than that of "nation" and it
negates any bigoted act incompatible with religious and human values, that
the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was recorded on the basis of
the idea of community and imamate and that the principle No. 57 in the
Constitution is interpreted according to this idea.
The ersearcher believes that in the political system of Islam, sovereignty is
to be intrusted to imam or to leader and the powers in the government, which
exercise authority, are to be disintegrated.
Quoting some parts of the proceedings of the discussion held by the
members of the council responsible for amending the institution, the writer
concludes that they do not hesitate to accept and to affirm the idea of
extending jurist's choices. He also thinks that disintegrating the powers is
something which has to do with the efficiency of Islamic system. The final part
criticizes the jurists' notes.

Reply to the Critique of the Article "Attending to Public Poll and People's
Attidues from Imam Ali's Point of View".
Muhammad Jawad Arista

In this article, which first introduces a conclusion of the inquiry made by
the researcher, the reader finds seven sections concerned with the critic's
remarks and the researcher's response to them.
The researcher throughout his discussion resorts to the viewpoint he had
put forwavd confirming that he clearly mentioned in the article that
guardianship (wilayah) is something that God has granted and that it is
necessary to take into account people's acceptance so that guardianship can
take effect, and considering that the critic's remarks are inaccurate, unsound,
and unscientific. The final part deals with the following two points:
1. With force and constraint religious government will not only fail to keep
 

 


|265|
 on being sustainable, but also lose people's good opinion of religion. So, it is
necessary for government to resort to the way of guiding people in order that
they may be pleased with the government and thus avoiding corruption and
paving the way for the establishment of Islamic government.
2. The points which the writer has stated are compatible with Imam
Khomeini's speech given in response to the election of Imam's
representatives, Ayatollah Subhani's views in his book "Mafahim al-Qur'an fi
Ma`alim al-Hukomat al-Islamiya", and the views of Sayyed Muhammad
.Sadr-al ilؤIsm sayyed late the of those and Tehrani Hussayn

Bibliography of Social Justice
Isma'il Muhammadi

In his attempt to write a bibliography on "social justice", the writer made
use  of the books and references in some libraries like that of the secretariat
of the Experts Assembly, the Research Institute of Hawzah (seminary) and
University, Baqir al -Olum Research Centre, Islamic History Department,
The Centre of Qur'anic Culture and Learnings, Feizyyeh (a well-known
theology school in Qum), the library of the Holy Shrine of Ma'sumeh (upon
her be peace) in Qum, Islamic Propagation Centre, the library of
Islam-and-Iran history, Hadi Bibliography and the Arabic encyclopedea
entitled Masadir al-Nizam al-Islami.
The writer introduces 70 Persian books and 50 Arabic books on "social
justice".

Articles on Political Thought and Jurisprudence in Islam published in
autumn 1380
Ibrahim Amiri

The articles on political thought and jurisprudence in Islam which appear
in this issue, are the outcome of thorough investigation into the materials of
publications, other than those of Islamic Governmen, which issued in 1380.
 

 


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 The criterion for deciding upon the articles was the relevence ,though indirect
of the materials to the subject concerned.
The materials come under the following four headings:
1. Religion and Its Relation with Politics
2. Religious Society and Civic Society
3. Religious Government
4. Government and Thinkers
The article in this issue is a collection of 201 titles.
 

 

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