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چکیده انگلیسی
چکیده انگلیسی تاریخ ثبت : 1390/11/20
طبقه بندي : فصلنامه حکومت اسلامی شماره29 ,
عنوان : چکیده انگلیسی
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ABSTRACTS

Trans. by Ahmad Reza Jalili and Sayyed `Abbas Huseyni

 

What We Expect from the Elite and Administrators / Editorial

 

Religious Democracy As Expressed by Ayatollah Khamenei , the Grand Leader of the Islamic Revolution /Ahmad Heidari

 

Right and Obligation /Ayatollah Javadi Amoli /Elaborated on by Abbas Pasandideh

 

Interpretation of Religious Democracy /Ayatollah Misbah-e Yazdi

 

Acts of Agression and Defense in the International Law /Seyyed Nasrollah Ibrahimi

 

Ayatollah Seyyed Muhammad Kadhim Tabatabi Yazdi's Political and Social Thought and Strategy /Rida Rammadan Nargisi

 

The Authority of Religious Jurisprudent or the Authority of Jurisprudence, Interaction or Contradiction/Mohammad Mahdi Bihdarwand

 

Imam Khomeini, the Idea of Islamic Government, and the Reactions /Mahdi Purhossein

 

The Reflections of Political Thought: Achieving Quorum by Religious Government/ Mustafa Jafar Pisheh

 

Islam, Society, and politics in the contemporary French Literature /Hassan Firishtiyan in cooperation with Rasool Ja'faryan

 

Book Reviews

 

Articles on Political Thought and Jurisprudence in Islam - dated to spring and summer, A.H. (solar) 1382 /Ibrahim Amiri

 


What We Expect from the Elite and Administrators / Editorial

 

The Islamic Revolution in Iran, which was led by a divine character, came
with a new messege at the time when the civilized people, thinking that they
are in no need of religion in any shope or form and that they have attained
the state of intellectual independence, had closed the file of the religious
government. Therefore, the arrogant powers which sought to nullify the
effects of religion in the fields of politics and sociology, were terrified at the
advent of a religiously based revolution and they formed a unified front to
stand against the new trend, and worked out plots attempting to conceal the
fact concerning Islam's competence to meet all the needs of society.

 

Under these circumstances, it stands to reason that the supporters of and
those atlached to the present Islamic system should focus their attention on
two things so that the religious system of the Islamic government will progress
and remain safe. In other words, they are required to: first, safeguard the
political system of the Islamic Government theoretically, and secondly,
demonstrate the efficiency of this system to solve social problems and meet
social needs.

 

 


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Religious Democracy As Expressed by Ayatollah Khamenei , the Grand Leader of the Islamic Revolution /Ahmad Heidari

 

Religious democracy is an essential issue in the religious system which was
raised at the early days of the victory of Islamic Revolution, at the time when
the constitution of the Islamic Republic was being planned by the Assembly
of Experts and it has been a subject of discussion in various circles up to the
present day. Since then, this important subject has received the leader's
special attention and this was noticed in his elaboration of this subject in the
congregation Friday prayers as well as in some scientific conferences, and so it
has achieved special prominence in recent years.

 

Reviewing the statements made by the leader in this regard, the writer
explains the idea of religious dmocracy and its limits and conditions and
points out the distinctions between religious democracy and the western style
of democracy , especially liberal democracy. Casting light on the three
concepts of "popular" , "populist" and "democracy" as expressed by the leader,
the writer makes explicit the principles of democracy refuting the assumption
that democracy is inconsistent with theocracy. Among the issues dealt with in
this article are the deficiencies of liberal democracy , the merits of religious
democracy and the hierarchy of authority in religious democracy.

 

 


Right and Obligation /Ayatollah Javadi Amoli /Elaborated on by Abbas Pasandideh

 

Discussions about man's "right and obligation" spring from two sources. In
other words, such discussions are grounded both on the divine and humanistic
knowledge and the interpretation of human nature (reality).

 

Attempting to elaborate on the nature of human right from the Islamic
point of view, the writer deals with such issues like human beings and rights ,
the nature of rights, the nature of man, the position or the status of man in
the univere, as well as man's relationship with the universe. Such issues as
religion and human rights, the relationship between "ought" and "ought not

 


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``rights claimed by man'', the relationship between servitude and human
rights, punishment in this world and the other world and the deontological
aspect of religion have also been discussed in this article.

 

Ayatollah Javadi concludes that human beings deserve claiming rights in
respect to man's nature and status and it is only religion that can ensure
human rights.

 

 


Interpretation of Religious Democracy /Ayatollah Misbah-e Yazdi

 

In this article , Ayatollah Misbah discusses the relationship between Islam
and democrocy and expounds on the composite term "religious democrocy">

 

Making clear the three views of the relationship between Islam and
democrocy and explaining the concepts of religion and democrocy in the west
as well as in the Islamic culture, Ayatollah Misbah deals with the framewowk
of religious government and the role people play in such a government and
explains how religion and democrocy are combined in the Islamic Republic of
Iran.

 

He concludes his discussion with the idea that according to Muslims'
perception of religion and democrocy and the definition given, there is no
conradiction between democrocy and religion and that ``religious democrocy''
is a real concept in which "democrocy" is conditional upon its being "religious".

 

 


Acts of Agression and Defense in the International Law /Seyyed Nasrollah Ibrahimi

 

The eleventh-of-September event was utilized illegally by the American
statesmen who thought it was a suitable excuse for the fulfilment of their
political , economic and military purposes at the international level and for
the establishment of a monopolistic system in the world.

 

Though America was not granted permission by the members of the UN
Security Council and in spite of the global disagreement, America placed

 


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itself as a preventive world constable through its military invasion of Iraq.

 

In this article, the writer tries to investigate the legitimacy of the American
invasion of Iraq from the viewpoint of the international law and goes on to
discuss such issues as Bush's doctrine of military invasion, the establisbment
of a world monopolistic system by America, the resort to force and threat and
its exceptional cases according to the International Law, the UN resolutions
and promises of imperialist countries, and the power of world community.

 

Furthermore, the article deals with other issues like the resort to threat
and force, agression and its definition, legal defence and its conditions,
collective security in the interational law and the resolutions of 1441 and
1483.

 

 


Ayatollah Seyyed Muhammad Kadhim Tabatabi Yazdi's Political and Social Thought and Strategy /Rida Rammadan Nargisi

 

In addition to the exceptional renown and eminence Ayatollah Seyyed
M.K.Yazdi gained in the field of jurisprudence and his being a uniquely
distinguished scholar and a learned spiritual figure, his ideas and conduct
exerted great effect in the areas of politics, social administration and running
the affairs of Muslims. These outstanding characteristics of the Seyyed urged
the writer to introduce a paranoma of this great jurist's political and social
life.

 

The writer mentions that according to the Seyyed's ideas , the authority of
the religious jurisprudent is the criterion of the legality of a political system
and considers that the Seyyed's political and social strategy is represented in
defending the Islamic edifice , showing hostility to foreign control, refraining
from preferring the seemingly interest to the religious injunctins, making hard
efforts to attend to the weak and his active presence in political ceremonies.

 

In a section under the title "The Seyyed and Constitutionalism", the writer
discusses the role of the Seyyed during the period of the constitutional
movement and then moves to cast light on some other issues like the Seyyed
and the weak, the Seyyed and imperialism, the military struggle against

 


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imperialism , the economic struggle ogainst impersalism, and the relation of
the Seyyed with the Akhund.

 

 


The Authority of Religious Jurisprudent or the Authority of Jurisprudence, Interaction or Contradiction/ Mohammad Mahdi Bihdarwand

 

The birth of the Islamic Revolution contributed the development of new
areas in politics, economics and the unique Islamic culture. It also helped
new areas with opportunities for speculation to develop. The necessity to
scrutinize the principle of authority of religious jurisprudent is a case in point.

 

Among the subjects of significance concerning the authority of religious
jurisprudent are the question of its range and the mechanism of excuting it.
The question that rises here is: Do people in a society under the patronage of
a jurist leader have to refer to jurist or to jurisprudence?

 

Some view that the responsibility of a jurist in a society with a jurist leader
is limited to exercising junisprudence and others see that the responsibility of
a jurist leader in authority is not only preaching religion but establishing it as
well, because practicing religion constitutes part of a jurist's duty rather than
all of it. This jurist's authority by no means implies that the jurist can act in
accordance with his desires or personal interests, for this can only lead to
selfishness and pursuing whims, whereas a jurist's duty , in fact, consists in his
loyality to the Divine and corresponds with His station, thus this authority
represents the very guardianship of the Divine.

 

The essay , which expouds on the variaus areas of the question concerned ,
casts light on a number of perspectives , comments them, and then assesses
them.

 

 


Imam Khomeini, the Idea of Islamic Government, and the Reactions /Mahdi Purhossein

 

Discussions about Islamic government under the authority of a Jurist

 


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leader (valiye-faqih), though have their roots in Shi' ite jurisprudence , can be
found in perhaps most juridical works of shi'it jurists. However, the
theoretical idea and the establishment of Islamic government is the novelest
of its kind in the Shi'it jurisprudence. It was Imam Khomeini, the grand
leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, who first introduced the idea of
establishment of Islamic government in 1969 when he lived in exile in Najaf, a
holy city in Iraq.

 

This article attempts to touch on the course of development of the idea of
Islamic government among shi'it scholars in three fields of pbilosophy,
jurisprudence and political jurisprudence. Also, shi'it scholar's , reactions and
attitudes are clarified in three discources: precautionary dissimulation
(taqiyyeh), reform and revolution and Imam Khomeini's theory of revolution
in discourse.

 

Having reviewed the principles of Islamic government in Imam Khomeini's
book "vilayat-e Faqih" (Guardianship of Religious Jurisprudent), the writer
casts light on the reactions and attitudes showed by Imam Khomeini's
companions, the Seminary (theological centre) of Najaf, Pahlavi's regime and
certain political groups concerning the idea of Islamic government.

 

 


The Reflections of Political Thought: Achieving Quorum by Religious Government/ Mustafa Jafar Pisheh

 

What, in fact, is the criterion of the religiosity of Government?

 

Some hold that due to the expansion of societies and the specialization
which characterizes modern life, a government, whose confirmed laws are
compatible with the precepts of jurisprudence, is considered to have achieved
quorum of religiosity , and so jurisprudence will be conditional upon no one
of the powers except legislative power.

 

The writer introduces a historical account of this view in the period of the
constitutional movement and then criticizes the theoratical and practical sides
of this view. Investigating the legal groands of this kind of government and
the conditions of the elected individual in it, the writer challenges the

 


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possibilily of executing it.

 

 


Islam, Society, and politics in the contemporary French Literature /Hassan Firishtiyan in cooperation with Rasool Ja'faryan

 

France is among the countries which has close ties with the Islamic world.
Regardless of its involvement in colonizing Islamic countries which lasted for
so many years, France offered residence to nearly six million Muslims. This
paved the way not only to France's competing with other imperialist countries
but also to motivate the French to widen and deepen their inquiries about
Islam. Consequently, the French scientific centers and institutions made
notable efforts during the previous decade to investigate Islam in general and
Islamic countries in particular as well as the history of Islamic civilization and
political Islam.

 

The present bibliography consists of forty works concerned with such
subjects like Islam, the Middle East, the Islamic Revolution in Iran and the
contemporary Shi'it movements.

 

 


Book Reviews

 

1. "Tuhfat al-Mulook". by Seyyed Ja`afar Kashfi, reviewed by Abd
al-Wahab Furati.

 

This book which came out in A.H.(lunar)1233 consists of three stages,
each of which is composed of many chapters. Kashfi has named each chapter
Tuhfah. The first stage elucidates the reality of reason and relevent issues.
The second stage demonstrates how reason is related with the beings and the
questions converned with it.In the third stage, Kashfi explains the functions of
reason and rational judgements before investigating domestic economy and
political science. The third stage also offers a definition of politics, and points
out the necessity of studying politics, the need of establising government and
the types of governments,the types of society and the functions of government
and people.

 

 


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2. "Tanbih al-umma Wa Tanzih al-millah" by Ayatolah Na`ini, reviewed by
Seyyed Jawad Wa`i

 

The signficance which this book has gained in the history of the political
philosophy of Shi`ah , especialy the history of the movements of the clerics in
the previous century on the one hand, and the great interest shown by the
researchers to read it as an authentic reference source on the other
provokedthe necessity of publishing the book again in a revised form
identical to the first edition written by its outhor. This new version includes
brief explanatious, related, references and indexes about the text. Such an
important work, which is the outcome of the efforts made by seyyed Jawad
Wa`i, is intended for those who study plitical thought in Islam.

 

 


Articles on Political Thought and Jurisprudence in Islam - dated to spring and summer, A.H. (solar) 1382 /Ibrahim Amiri

 

The present survey which introduces a collection of articles on political
thought and jurisprudence in Islam, is an outcome of inquiry into the books
and publications (other than Islamic Government quarterly) which came out
during the spring and the summer (up to Mordad) of the year A.H.(solar)
1382.

 

The criterion of what article to choose is its ralationِthough indirectlyِto
the main topic.

 

The index consists of four headings arranged as follows:

 

1. Religion and its relation with the field of politics

 

2. Religious society and civil society

 

3. Religious Government

 

4. Government and thinkers

 

The number of the articles this issue introduces amounts to 379.

 

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