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چکیده انگلیسی
چکیده انگلیسی تاریخ ثبت : 1390/12/08
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عنوان : چکیده انگلیسی
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ABSTRACTS

Trans. by Ahmad Rezā Jalili and Sayyed Abbās Huseyni

 

• The Origin of the Legitimacy of Sovereignty

¨ by Muhsin Arāki

            A sovereign’s will cannot be binding without being legitimate, a condition which constitutes the basis of a sovereign's power and its nature. This differs from the legitimacy of man’s voluntary behavior or the legitimacy of man’s will (stemming from human behavior). The reason is that the legitimacy of human behavior depends on the legitimacy of man's will and on the extent to which the will corresponds with such standards like "right" and "justice" whereas in the question of a sovereign’s will's being binding, the legitimacy of the will from which sovereignty stems is not sufficient for ensuring legitimacy.

            Different schools of political philosophy have proposed different bases for this important question, and Islam has introduced its basis, as well, which needs to be analysed rationally and philosophically. For this purpose, a ruler's sovereignty should be legitimate from two aspects; namely, existence of the will and obliging others. As for man's intellect, it cannot be regarded as an origin of legitimacy because intellect in turn needs another criterion and authority in order to discern whether man's voluntary behaviour is right or wrong, just or unjust, good or not.


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According to the celestial thought, divine intellect and wisdom – due to the full awareness and intrinsic infallibility it enjoys – can be the only true, and perfect criterion for explaining scientific propositons. The divine will, too, originates in the very divine wisdom, and being characterized by basic standards like good and justice, this will, which represents the Divine intellect, is always consistent with good, justice and truth. Consequently, the only origin of the legitimacy of man's will and decision is divine revelation.

Key words:

            political philosophy, legitimacy, sovereignty, human intellect, Divine intellect, Divine legislative will.

 

• The Components of Foreign Policy in the Justice-seeking Fundamentalist Discourse

¨ by Bahram Akhawan Kazimi

Since the question of justice is regarded the focal point of the discourse of the nineth-term and tenth-term governments, the present government is known as "justice-seeking fundamentalist government." The presence of this discource in the realm of foreign policy is very striking.

The present article seeks to specify the components of the foreign policy of this discourse by examining the semantic syestem of this discourse and what signifies it. Taking into account this semantic system and observing the Supreme leader's recommendations and in order to achieve the goals of the fourth decade of the Islamic Revolution, the author proposes new and more effective signifiers for this discourse specially in the realm of foreign policy.

Key words:

            Foreign policy, diplomacy, fundamentalist discourse, monotheism,


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justice, combating with arrogance, the Islamic Revolution, the Supreme leader, the nineth – term and tenth – term government.

 

• The Domain of the Question of "Guardianship of Muslim Jurist" (Wilāyat al-faqih)

¨ by Seyyed Muhammad Mas'ud Ma'sumi

     Some say that the question of "guardianship of a Muslim jurist" is related to fiqh, others say it is an issue in kalām (Islamic theology), still others consider it as both a theological and fiqhi question. Each of the three introduces some evidence to justify their claim. After the author of this article explains whether making a distinction between the fiqhi and theological nature of this question is of any consequencies, it becomes evident that proposing the question of  "guardianship of  a Muslim jurist" as a theological or fiqhi issue is  misleading, because it can be discussed both in theology and in fiqh. The difference between the two is that in theology, the answers to the questions about "the guardianship of a Muslim jurist" have to do with the Divine actions, whereas in fiqh, the answers to such questions are related to the judgements on man's actions.

     To sum up, the assumption that if the question of "guardianship of a Muslim jurist" is not related to theology it has to fall into the province of fiqh and the assumption that if this question is not related to fiqh it has to fall into the province of theology, are of no avail.

Key words:

            the guardianship of a Muslim jurist, Imamate, domain, kalām (theology), fiqh.


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• Imamate in the View of Transcendent Theosophy and Peripatetic Philosophy

¨ by Murtaza Yousufi – Rad

Philosophers always seek to find answers to man's fundamental questions and present solutions for determining man's destiny. Their major concerns were such questions like happiness, ideal political life and utopian leadership. Muslim philosophers, from among those who advocate transcendent theosophy or those who are in favour of peripatetic philosophy hold that achieving happiness or a desireable political order requires a utopian leader and these characteristics are found only in the Infallible Imam, i.e. the perfect man.

The main difference between these two philosophical schools is that peripatetic philosophers think that Imam mainly has a political function (leading political society to the state in which individuals can take on of perfections), but according to the philosophers who advocate transcendent theosophy, the main function of Imam is gnostic and spiritual. However, each of them considers Imam as the most perfect individual in society.

Key words:

            Muslim philosophers, peripatetic philosophers, philosophers who advocate transcendent philosophy, Imam, happiness, ideal political  order, utopian  leadership.

 

• Mirza of Qom and Qājār Government

¨ by Seyyed Ridā Mahdinejād

The present article focuses on the kind of relations Mirzā of Qom had with the Qājār government, the causes for establishing such relations and his view of the government of the day. At the early years of Qājār


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dynasty, that is, during the rule of Aghā Muhammad Khān and the rule of Fath Ali Shāh in particular, many religious scholars had close relations with the Qajār government. But the relations which Mirzā Abu al-Qāsim of Qom – a most eminent religious scholar of the day – had with that government was of special importance and influence.

Taking into account the fact that throughout recorded history Shi'i scholars did not have relations with or opposition to the kings and their governments, if they were inclined to establish on certain occasions or in some periods close relations with the governments of the day, what are the factors involved in establishing such relations? How does this position of scholars accord with their view that the government of the day was illegitimate?

The author points out that the religious attitude of the government of the day along with the domestic and foreign problems which threatened the foundations of Islam, people's faith and Shi'ism, pushed some religious scholars including Mirzā of Qom to make use of thier authority by cultivating close relations with the government of the day in attempt to safeguard Islamic law and the edifice of Islam and contribute to the prevalence of Islam and Shi'ism.

Key words:

            legalitimacy, Mirzā of Qom, Qājār government, the wars between Iran and Russia, Sufism, traditionalist,            Sheikhiyah, Christianity.

 

• The Guardianship of Just Believers

¨ by Seyyed Muhammad Amin Hāshimi

            According to the basic principles of Shi'ah fiqh, the leader of a government has, in the first place, been an infallible person and during the occultation period (i.e. when the Imam is hidden) this responsibility


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is, on the basis of the proofs confirming the principle of the guardianship of a Muslim jurist, entrusted to a Muslim jurist (faqih). Some faqihs consider that one of the proofs for the guardianship of a Muslim jurist is connected to non-litigious affairs. Given this, and due to the necessity of having a government, the faqih is the most suitable one for holding the responsibility of governance. But, according to the above mentioned principles, if a faqih provides every excuse to avoid holding the responsibility of governance, then the mamagement of the affairs is entrusted to a just believer. The stated view is based on certain fiqhi evidence.

The present article discusses the idea of the guardianship of just believers, and the jurisdiction and conditions of their responsibility.

Key words:

guardianship, just believers, guardianship of Muslim jurist, non- litigious affairs.

 

• The Fiqhi Foundations of the Islamic Revolution of Iran in Imām Khomeini's Thought

¨ by Seyyed Jawad Wara'i and Ali Akbar Nāsiri

            Historical evidence and documents acknowledge that the Shāh's tyrannical regime has committed large-scale offences of various kinds in political, cultural and economic aspects. This regime was under the control of foreign powers especially the United States in such a way that Shāh's government became dependent on and controlled by the foreigners. Under Shāh’s government, the Iranian nation suffered from political, cultural, social and economic oppression. Such were the circumstances which drove Imam Khomeini, who found that it was his


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duty – prescribed by Islamic law – to combat the reign of a tyrant, and to topple Pahlawi's regime and establish an Islamic government. Imam Khomeini's thought was based on such principles like enjoining good and forbidding evil, necessity of rejecting foreign hegemony, necessity of combating injustice and oppression, and the belief in the inseparability of religion and government.

Key words:

The Islamic Revolution, Imam Khomeini, fiqhi foundations, enjoining good and forbidding evil, rejecting the idea of unbeliever's superiority over believers, combatting injustice, the unity of religion and politics.

تعداد نمایش : 1795 <<بازگشت
 

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